As the music of the world was evolving, so was the drum set. Tom-tom drums, small crash cymbals, Chinese cymbals and hi-hat cymbals were added to the drum set. The hi-hats were the primary way for the drummers of the big band era to keep time. Before 1930, while playing the New Orleans jazz and Chicago styles, drummers would choke the cymbals on the "ands" of eighth note figures as an alternative to playing a buzz roll, the rim of the drums, or on the woodblocks to keep time. This muting method of keeping time by choking the crash and china cymbals proved to be awkward, so the drummers of that time came up with the idea of having a foot-operated cymbal. This resulted in the creation of the snowshoe cymbal, a foot-operated cymbal. It enabled drummers to play the eighth note figures between the right and left foot, improving the ergonomics and facility of drumset playing and helping drummers to keep a more steady rhythm.
In the 1980s, bass designers continued to explore new approaches. Ned Steinberger introduced a headless bass in 1979 and continued his innovations in the 1980s, using graphite and other new materials and (in 1984) introducing the TransTrem tremolo bar. In 1982, Hans-Peter Wilfer founded Warwick, to make a European bass, as the market at the time was dominated by Asian and American basses. Their first bass was the Streamer Bass, which is similar to the Spector NS. In 1987, the Guild Guitar Corporation launched the fretless Ashbory bass, which used silicone rubber strings and a piezoelectric pickup to achieve an "upright bass" sound with a short 18-inch (457 mm) scale length. In the late 1980s, MTV's "Unplugged" show, which featured bands performing with acoustic instruments, helped to popularize hollow-bodied acoustic bass guitars amplified with piezoelectric pickups built into the bridge of the instrument.

All cymbals other than rides, hi-hats and crashes/splashes are usually called effects cymbals when used in a drum kit, though this is a non-classical or colloquial designation that has become a standardized label. Most extended kits include one or more splash cymbals and at least one china cymbal. Major cymbal makers produce cymbal extension packs consisting of one splash and one china, or more rarely a second crash, a splash and a china, to match some of their starter packs of ride, crash and hi-hats. However any combination of options can be found in the marketplace.


Budget constraints and space considerations in musical theatre pit orchestras led bandleaders to pressure fewer percussionists to cover more percussion parts. Metal consoles were developed to hold Chinese tom-toms, with swing-out stands for snare drums and cymbals. On top of the console was a "contraption" tray (shortened to "trap"), used to hold items like whistles, klaxons, and cowbells, so these drums/kits were dubbed "trap kits". Hi-hat stands became available around 1926.[9]
Drum muffles are types of mutes that can reduce the ring, boomy overtone frequencies, or overall volume on a snare, bass, or tom. Controlling the ring is useful in studio or live settings when unwanted frequencies can clash with other instruments in the mix. There are internal and external muffling devices which rest on the inside or outside of the drumhead, respectively. Common types of mufflers include muffling rings, gels and duct tape, and improvised methods, such as placing a wallet near the edge of the head.[25] Some drummers muffle the sound of a drum by putting a cloth over the drumhead.
Other design options include finishes, such as lacquer, wax and oil; flat and carved designs; luthier-produced custom-designed instruments; headless basses, which have tuning machines in the bridge of the instrument (e.g., Steinberger and Hohner designs) and several artificial materials such as luthite. The use of artificial materials (e.g., BassLab) allows for unique production techniques such as die-casting, to produce complex body shapes. While most basses have solid bodies, they can also include hollow chambers to increase the resonance or reduce the weight of the instrument. Some basses are built with entirely hollow bodies, which change the tone and resonance of the instrument. Acoustic bass guitars have a hollow wooden body constructed similarly to an acoustic guitar, and are typically equipped with piezoelectric or magnetic pickups and amplified.

The bass guitarist sometimes breaks out of the strict rhythm section role to perform bass breaks or bass solos. The types of bass lines used for bass breaks or bass solos vary by style. In a rock band, a bass break may consist of the bassist playing a riff or lick during a pause in the song. In some styles of metal, a bass break may consist of "shred guitar"-style tapping on the bass. In a funk or funk rock band, a bass solo may showcase the bassist's percussive slap and pop playing. In genres such as progressive rock, art rock, or progressive metal, the bass guitar player may play melody lines along with the lead guitar (or vocalist) and perform extended guitar solos.
By World War I, drum kits were often marching band-style military bass drums with many percussion items suspended on and around them. Drum kits became a central part of jazz music, especially Dixieland. The modern drum kit was developed in the Vaudeville era during the 1920s in New Orleans.[11] In 1917, a New Orleans band called "The Original Dixieland Jazz Band " recorded jazz tunes that became hits all over the country. These were the first official jazz recordings. Drummers such as Baby Dodds, "Zutty" Singleton and Ray Bauduc had taken the idea of marching rhythms, combining the bass drum and snare drum and "traps", a term used to refer to the percussion instruments associated with immigrant groups, which included miniature cymbals, tom toms, cowbells and woodblocks. They started incorporating these elements with ragtime, which had been popular for a couple of decades, creating an approach which evolved into a jazz drumming style.
Matt Abts • Alex Acuña • Daniel Adair • Chris Adler • Morgan Agren • Airto • Tommy Aldridge • Rashied Ali • Don Alias • Carl Allen • Cliff Almond • Barry Altschul • Robby Ameen • Scott Amendola • Animal • Charly Antolini • Carmine Appice • Vinny Appice • Kenny Aronoff • Billy Ashbaugh • Mick Avory • Marcel Bach • Colin Bailey • Donald Bailey • Ginger Baker • Jeff Ballard • Alex Bally • Joe La Barbera • Danny Barcelona • Travis Barker • Barriemore Barlow • Joey Baron • Ranjit Barot • Julio Barreto • Ray Barretto • Ray Bauduc • Eddie Bayers • Marcus Baylor • Frank Beard • Carter Beauford • Poogie Bell • Louie Bellson • Frank Bellucci • Brian Bennett • Han Bennink • Joe Bergamini • Tal Bergman • Jon "Bermuda" Schwartz • Ignacio Berroa • Pete Ray Biggin • Curt Bisquera • Gregg Bissonette • Jason Bittner • Roger Biwandu • Dave Black • James Black • Cindy Blackman • John Blackwell • Brian Blade • Hal Blaine • Art Blakey • Jason Bonham • John Bonham • Gergo Borlai • Paul Bostaph • Terry Branam • Dirk Brand • Jimmy Branly • Tom Brechtlein • Amir Bresler • Don Brewer • Gerry Brown • Bill Bruford • Ronald Bruner Jr. • Jack Bruno • Mark Brzezicki • Roy Burns • William Calhoun • Matt Cameron • Clayton Cameron • Gorden Campbell • Teddy Campbell • Tommy Campbell • Emmanuelle Caplette • Danny Carey • Keith Carlock • Bun E. Carlos • Karen Carpenter • Terri Lyne Carrington • Joey Castillo • Lenny Castro • Deen Castronovo • Big Sid Catlett • André Ceccarelli • Dave DiCenso • Gary Chaffee • Matt Chamberlain • Stephane Chamberland • Jimmy Chamberlin • Dennis Chambers • Ndugu Chancler • Jim Chapin • Gary Chester • Jon Christensen • Kenny Clare • Greg Clark • Mike Clark • Kenny Clarke • Tommy Clufetos • Jimmy Cobb • Billy Cobham • Vinnie Colaiuta • Cozy Cole • Chris Coleman • Cora Coleman-Dunham • Tony Coleman • Phil Collins • Aaron Comess • Luis Conte • Tré Cool • Ray Cooper • Stewart Copeland • Paulinho Da Costa • Kirk Covington • René Creemers • Adam Cruz • Abe Cunningham • Mickey Curry • Andrew Cyrille • Nick D'Virgilio • Paulinho Da Costa • Brann Dailor • Dino Danelli • Zach Danziger • Flo Dauner • Chris "Daddy" Dave • Mike Davila • Alan Dawson • Mikkey Dee • Barrett Deems • Jimmy DeGrasso • Adam Deitch • Jack DeJohnette • Kenwood Dennard • John Densmore • Liberty De Vitto • Wim De Vries • Dave DiCenso • Marko Djordjevic • Warren "Baby" Dodds • John Dolmayan • Peter Donald • Virgil Donati • Famadou Don Moye • Paul Douglas • Brian Downey • Hamid Drake • Martin Drew • The Drumbassadors • Billy Drummond • Aynsley Dunbar • Sly Dunbar • Mario Duplantier • Sheila E. • Phil Ehart • Dave Elitch • Paul Elliott • Sonny Emory • Peter Erskine • Dom Famularo • Pierre Favre • Steve Ferrone • Anton Fig • Vera Figueiredo • Sammy Figueroa • Larry Finn • Eric Fischer • Mick Fleetwood • D.J. Fontana • Hannah Ford • Shannon Forrest • Al Foster • Vernel Fournier • Panama Francis • Brian Frasier-Moore • Josh Freese • Kiko Freitas • Steve Gadd • James Gadson • Richie Gajate-Garcia • David Garibaldi • Matt Garstka • Bob Gatzen • Mel Gaynor • Leonard "Doc" Gibbs • Andy Gillmann • Daniel Glass • Evelyn Glennie • Jim Gordon • Danny Gottlieb • Jimmy DeGrasso • Rick Gratton • Eric Kamau Gravatt • Milford Graves • Benny Greb • Sonny Greer • Rayford Griffin • Dave Grohl • Freddie Gruber • Donny Gruendler • Mark Guiliana • Terreon Gully • Trilok Gurtu • Ralf Gustke • Tomas Haake • Wolfgang Haffner • Omar Hakim • Matt Halpern • Chico Hamilton • Jeff Hamilton • Lionel Hampton • Jake Hanna • Eric Harland • Buddy Harman • Gavin Harrison • Mickey Hart • Billy Hart • Steve Hass • Fritz Hauser • Roger Hawkins • Taylor Hawkins • Louis Hayes • Roy Haynes • Richie Hayward • Albert Tootie Heath • Hernan Hecht • Levon Helm • Don Henley • Joey Heredia • Horacio Hernandez • Raymond Herrera • Claus Hessler • Gerald Heyward • Giovanni Hidalgo • Billy Higgins • Jon Hiseman • Ari Hoenig • Gene Hoglan • Rodney Holmes • Steve Holmes • Steve Houghton • Boris Hrebtukov • Daniel Humair • Gary Husband • Zakir Hussain • Greg Hutchinson • Susie Ibarra • Tommy Igoe • Tris Imboden • Al Jackson • Huub Janssen • Bobby Jarzombek • Akira Jimbo • Jack DeJohnette • Mike Johnston • Daru Jones • Elvin Jones • Harold Jones • Hilary Jones • Papa Jo Jones • Philly Joe Jones • Randy Jones • Rufus "Speedy" Jones • Steve Jordan • Joey Jordison • Jonathan Joseph • Manu Katché • Senri Kawaguchi • Jim Keltner • Will Kennedy • Billy Kilson • George Kollias • Glenn Kotche • Joey Kramer • Bill Kreutzmann • Gene Krupa • Russ Kunkel • Joe La Barbera • Abe Laboriel jr. • Gene Lake • Don Lamond • Thomas Lang • Dave Langguth • Shannon Larkin • Pete LaRoca Sims • Karl Latham • Rick Latham • Trevor Lawrence Jr. • Ricky Lawson • Chris Layton • Tommy Lee • Felix M. Lehrmann • Paul Leim • Stan Levey • Larnell Lewis • Mel Lewis • Victor Lewis • Pete Lockett • Dave Lombardo • Larrie Londin • Hakim Ludin • Andy Lüscher • Ray Luzier • Mike Mangini • Shelly Manne • Brian "Brain" Mantia • Sherrie Maricle • Rick Marotta • Bill Marschall • John Marshall • Billy Martin • Pedrito Martinez • Ken Mary • Harvey Mason • Nick Mason • Pat Mastelotto • Dave Mattacks • Phil Maturano • JoJo Mayer • Marilyn Mazur • Nicko McBrain • Joe McCarthy • George "Spanky" McCurdy • Jason McGerr • Russ McKinnon • Marvin McQuitty • Buddy Miles • Butch Miles • Russ Miller • Marco Minnemann • Mike Mitchell • Mitch Mitchell • Joseph Ziggy Modeliste • Jonathan Moffett • Drori Mondlak • Keith Moon • Eric Moore • Stanton Moore • Steve Moore • Airto Moreira • Joe Morello • Rod Morgenstein • Joe Morris • Paul Motian • Alphonse Mouzon • Jonathan Mover • Don Moye • Moritz Mueller • Idris Muhammad • Larry Mullen Jr. • Narada • Lewis Nash • Sandy Nelson • Andy Newmark • Jost Nickel • Anika Nilles • Gary Novak • Adam Nussbaum • Volkan Öktem • Jamie Oldaker • Nigel Olsson • John Otto • Ian Paice • Carl Palmer • Earl Palmer • Francis Panama • Toss Panos • Chris Parker • Leon Parker • Vinnie Paul • Jim Payne • Sonny Payne • Lee Pearson • Neil Peart • Shawn Pelton • Clarence Penn • Chris Pennie • Armando Peraza • Karl Perazzo • Stephen Perkins • Charli Persip • Ralph Peterson • Pat Petrillo • Simon Phillips • Felix Pollard • Joe Porcaro • Jeff Porcaro • Mike Portnoy • Cozy Powell • Bobby Previte • Thomas Pridgen • Aquiles Priester • Dafnis Prieto • Tito Puente • Bernard "Pretty" Purdie • Alvin Queen • Jeff Queen • Questlove • Johnny Rabb • Tobias Ralph • Stanley Randolph • Rich Redmond • Raul Rekow • Walfredo Reyes • Walfredo Reyes, Jr. • Buddy Rich • Dannie Richmond • Sean Rickman • Alex Riel • Kariem Riggins • Ben Riley • Herlin Riley • Jim Riley • John Riley • Ringo • Chip Ritter • Max Roach • Lil John Roberts • John "J.R." Robinson • Pete LaRoca Sims • Derek Roddy • Mickey Roker • Bobby Rondinelli • Joel Rosenblatt • Tony Royster Jr. • Ilan Rubin • Phil Rudd • Daniel Sadownick • Bobby Sanabria • Antonio Sanchez • Poncho Sanchez • Mongo Santamaria • Robyn Schulkowsky • Mark Schulman • Jon Bermuda Schwartz • Robert "Sput" Searight • Denny Seiwell • Danny Seraphine • Paco Séry • Chad Sexton • Gil Sharone • Ed Shaughnessy • Michael Shrieve • Pete LaRoca Sims • Eric Singer • Zutty Singleton • Chad Smith • Marvin "Smitty" Smith • Nate Smith • Nick Smith • Steve Smith • Ash Soan • Glen Sobel • Ed Soph • Matt Sorum • Richard Spaven • Aaron Spears • David Stanoch • Zak Starkey • John "Jabo" Starks • Ringo Starr • Ronnie Stephenson • Bill Stewart • Nisan Stewart • Clyde Stubblefield • Fredy Studer • Todd Sucherman • James "The Reverend" Sullivan • Grady Tate • Art Taylor • Mel Taylor • Roger Taylor • John Tempesta • Jon Theodore • Aaron Thier • Ed Thigpen • Ian Thomas • Ahmir Questlove Thompson • Chester Thompson • Brian Tichy • Top Secret Drum Corps • Efrain Toro • Pat Torpey • Tico Torres • Dave Tough • Nat Townsley • Ron Tutt • Lars Ulrich • Vadrum Andrea Vadrucci • Christian Vander • Alex Van Halen • Ronnie Vannucci • Nana Vasconcelos • Carlos Vega • Glen Velez • Nicolas Viccaro • Johnny Vidacovich • Jimmy Vincent • Nick D'Virgilio • Wim De Vries • Chad Wackerman • Nasheet Waits • Narada Michael Walden • Bill Ward • Billy Ward • Kenny Washington • Derico Watson • Charlie Watts • Jeff "Tain" Watts • Chick Webb • Dave Weckl • Max Weinberg • Klaus Weiss • Paul Wertico • George Wettling • Alan White • Lenny White • Steve White • Pete Wilhoit • Brad Wilk • Tony Williams • Matt Wilson • Shadow Wilson • Kenny Wollesen • Sam Woodyard • Pete York • Pete Zeldman • Zoro
Fender also began production of the Mustang Bass; a 30-inch (762 mm) scale length instrument used by bassists such as Tina Weymouth of Talking Heads and Bill Wyman of The Rolling Stones ("P" and "J" basses have a scale length of 34 inches (864 mm), a design echoed on most current production electric basses of all makes). In the 1950s and 1960s, the instrument was often called the "Fender bass", due to Fender's early dominance in the market. The Fender VI, a baritone guitar, was tuned one octave lower than standard guitar tuning. It was released in 1961, and was favored by Jack Bruce of Cream.[20]
The shell almost invariably has a circular opening over which the drumhead is stretched, but the shape of the remainder of the shell varies widely. In the western musical tradition, the most usual shape is a cylinder, although timpani, for example, use bowl-shaped shells.[1] Other shapes include a frame design (tar, Bodhrán), truncated cones (bongo drums, Ashiko), goblet shaped (djembe), and joined truncated cones (talking drum).
Most five-piece kits, at more than entry level, also have one or more effects cymbals. Adding cymbals beyond the basic ride, hi-hats and one crash configuration requires more stands in addition to the standard drum hardware packs. Because of this, many higher-cost kits for professionals are sold with little or even no hardware, to allow the drummer to choose the stands and also the bass drum pedal he/she prefers. At the other extreme, many inexpensive, entry-level kits are sold as a five-piece kit complete with two cymbal stands, most often one straight and one boom, and some even with a standard cymbal pack, a stool and a pair of 5A drum sticks. In the 2010s, digital kits are often offered in a five-piece kit, usually with one plastic crash cymbal triggers and one ride cymbal trigger. Fully electronic drums do not produce any acoustic sound beyond the quiet tapping of sticks on the plastic or rubber heads. The trigger-pads are wired up to a synth module or sampler.
The second biggest factor that affects drum sound is head tension against the shell. When the hoop is placed around the drum head and shell and tightened down with tension rods, the tension of the head can be adjusted. When the tension is increased, the amplitude of the sound is reduced and the frequency is increased, making the pitch higher and the volume lower.
Some bassists use other types of tuning to extend the range or get other benefits, such as providing multiple octaves of notes at any given position, or a larger tonal range. Instrument types or tunings used for this purpose include basses with fewer than four strings (one-string bass guitars,[35] two-string bass guitars, three-string bass guitars [tuned to E–A–D])[36] and alternative tunings (e.g., tenor bass).[37]
The electric bass guitar has occasionally been used in contemporary classical music (art music) since the late 1960s. Contemporary composers often obtained unusual sounds or instrumental timbres through the use of non-traditional (or unconventional) instruments or playing techniques. As such, bass guitarists playing contemporary classical music may be instructed to pluck or strum the instrument in unusual ways.
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Trigger pads and drums, on the other hand, when deployed in a conventional set-up, are most commonly used to produce sounds not possible with an acoustic kit, or at least not with what is available. Any sound that can be sampled/recorded can be played when the pad is struck, by assigning the recorded sounds to specific triggers . Recordings or samples of barking dogs, sirens, breaking glass and stereo recordings of aircraft taking off and landing have all been used. Along with the more obvious electronically generated sounds there are synthesized human voices or song parts or even movie audio or digital video/pictures that (depending on device used) can also be played/triggered by electronic drums.
The second biggest factor that affects drum sound is head tension against the shell. When the hoop is placed around the drum head and shell and tightened down with tension rods, the tension of the head can be adjusted. When the tension is increased, the amplitude of the sound is reduced and the frequency is increased, making the pitch higher and the volume lower.
Slap and pop style is also used by many bassists in other genres, such as rock (e.g., J J Burnel and Les Claypool), metal (e.g., Eric Langlois, Martin Mendez, Fieldy and Ryan Martinie), and jazz fusion (e.g., Marcus Miller, Victor Wooten and Alain Caron). Slap style playing was popularized throughout the 1980s and early 1990s by pop bass players such as Mark King (from Level 42) and rock bassists such as with Pino Palladino (currently a member of the John Mayer Trio and bassist for The Who),[55] Flea (from the Red Hot Chili Peppers) and Alex Katunich (from Incubus). Spank bass developed from the slap and pop style and treats the electric bass as a percussion instrument, striking the strings above the pickups with an open palmed hand. Wooten popularized the "double thump," in which the string is slapped twice, on the upstroke and a downstroke (for more information, see Classical Thump). A rarely used playing technique related to slapping is the use of wooden dowel "funk fingers", an approach popularized by Tony Levin.

The Alesis Recital Pro is $100 less expensive than our runner-up, but it doesn’t sound that way. The built-in sounds are good, and with its touch buttons and LCD readout, the keyboard is the easiest and most intuitive to use of our picks. It doesn’t come with a sustain pedal, so it will require an extra purchase of about $20 to make it fully functional. Although it doesn’t sound quite as good or play quite as well as our main pick, it’s clearly the standout value.
Some digital piano implementations, like Roland V-Piano[2], Yamaha MODUS, Casio Celviano Grand Hybrid, and the software-based Pianoteq,[3] use mathematical models based on real pianos to generate sound, which brings the ability to generate sounds that vary more freely depending on how the keys have been struck, in addition to allow a more realistic implementation of the distinctive resonances and acoustical noises of real pianos.
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