Drumming may be a purposeful expression of emotion for entertainment, spiritualism and communication. Many cultures practice drumming as a spiritual or religious passage and interpret drummed rhythm similarly to spoken language or prayer. Drumming has developed over millennia to be a powerful art form. Drumming is commonly viewed as the root of music and is sometimes performed as a kinesthetic dance. As a discipline, drumming concentrates on training the body to punctuate, convey and interpret musical rhythmic intention to an audience and to the performer.
Looking for complete drum sets for the drummer in your life? You’ll feel like a king when you sit at the throne of a new five-piece drum set from one of the industry’s most popular brands, such as Pearl, Tama, Mapex, and more. We even offer all the extra bells and whistles so you can start rocking away. Find all the drum accessories you need, from double bass pedals, cymbals, and triangles, to replacement drum heads, drum stools, and stands. When you need more cow bell, or your intense, gut-busting, around-the-world drum fills break the heads off of your sticks, be sure to stock up on replacement sticks and other drum accessories.

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In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, Washington, developed the first electric string bass in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally. The 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, Audiovox, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass instrument with a 30 1⁄2-inch (775-millimetre) scale length.[8] The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments. The addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more easily than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses. Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period.[9]
The second biggest factor that affects drum sound is head tension against the shell. When the hoop is placed around the drum head and shell and tightened down with tension rods, the tension of the head can be adjusted. When the tension is increased, the amplitude of the sound is reduced and the frequency is increased, making the pitch higher and the volume lower.

A number of accessories are designed for the bass drum (also called "kick drum"). Ported tubes for the bass drum are available to take advantage of the bass reflex speaker design, in which a tuned port (a hole and a carefully measured tube) are put in a speaker enclosure to improve the bass response at the lowest frequencies.[32] Bass drumhead patches are available, which protect the drumhead from the impact of the felt beater. Bass drum pillows are fabric bags with filling or stuffing that can be used to alter the tone or resonance of the bass drum. A less expensive alternative to using a specialized bass drum pillow is to use an old sleeping bag.

An acoustic piano produces reverberation in its soundboard and in the room where it is played. Digital pianos often have a feature to electronically simulate reverberation as well. Other digital pianos may have additional reverberation options such as a "stage simulation." Some also have chorus, tremolo, and phaser effects, all of which are generated by digital signal processing.
Popular music bands and rock groups use the bass guitar as a member of the rhythm section, which provides the chord sequence or "progression" and sets out the "beat" for the song. The rhythm section typically consists of a rhythm guitarist or electric keyboard player, or both, a bass guitarist and a drummer; larger groups may add additional guitarists, keyboardists, or percussionists.
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Although we might take some flak from guitarists, we bassists know the truth: a band just wouldn't be the same without the deep, rumbling tones of the bass laying the foundation for everyone else. Any instrument can play a memorable tune, but it's up to the bass guitar to really put in the heartbeat and soul that separates a great song from an average one. Naturally, giving a great performance is all about being in touch with your instrument, and for that, you'll want to take a careful look at the basses here to find the one that fits you best.
A four-piece kit extends the three-piece by adding one tom, either a second hanging tom mounted on the bass drum (a notable user is Chris Frantz of Talking Heads) and often displacing the cymbal, or by adding a floor tom. Normally another cymbal is added as well, so there are separate ride and crash cymbals, either on two stands, or the ride cymbal mounted on the bass drum to the player's right and the crash cymbal on a separate stand. The standard cymbal sizes are 16" crash and 18"–20" ride, with the 20" ride most common.

Matt Abts • Alex Acuña • Daniel Adair • Chris Adler • Morgan Agren • Airto • Tommy Aldridge • Rashied Ali • Don Alias • Carl Allen • Cliff Almond • Barry Altschul • Robby Ameen • Scott Amendola • Animal • Charly Antolini • Carmine Appice • Vinny Appice • Kenny Aronoff • Billy Ashbaugh • Mick Avory • Marcel Bach • Colin Bailey • Donald Bailey • Ginger Baker • Jeff Ballard • Alex Bally • Joe La Barbera • Danny Barcelona • Travis Barker • Barriemore Barlow • Joey Baron • Ranjit Barot • Julio Barreto • Ray Barretto • Ray Bauduc • Eddie Bayers • Marcus Baylor • Frank Beard • Carter Beauford • Poogie Bell • Louie Bellson • Frank Bellucci • Brian Bennett • Han Bennink • Joe Bergamini • Tal Bergman • Jon "Bermuda" Schwartz • Ignacio Berroa • Pete Ray Biggin • Curt Bisquera • Gregg Bissonette • Jason Bittner • Roger Biwandu • Dave Black • James Black • Cindy Blackman • John Blackwell • Brian Blade • Hal Blaine • Art Blakey • Jason Bonham • John Bonham • Gergo Borlai • Paul Bostaph • Terry Branam • Dirk Brand • Jimmy Branly • Tom Brechtlein • Amir Bresler • Don Brewer • Gerry Brown • Bill Bruford • Ronald Bruner Jr. • Jack Bruno • Mark Brzezicki • Roy Burns • William Calhoun • Matt Cameron • Clayton Cameron • Gorden Campbell • Teddy Campbell • Tommy Campbell • Emmanuelle Caplette • Danny Carey • Keith Carlock • Bun E. Carlos • Karen Carpenter • Terri Lyne Carrington • Joey Castillo • Lenny Castro • Deen Castronovo • Big Sid Catlett • André Ceccarelli • Dave DiCenso • Gary Chaffee • Matt Chamberlain • Stephane Chamberland • Jimmy Chamberlin • Dennis Chambers • Ndugu Chancler • Jim Chapin • Gary Chester • Jon Christensen • Kenny Clare • Greg Clark • Mike Clark • Kenny Clarke • Tommy Clufetos • Jimmy Cobb • Billy Cobham • Vinnie Colaiuta • Cozy Cole • Chris Coleman • Cora Coleman-Dunham • Tony Coleman • Phil Collins • Aaron Comess • Luis Conte • Tré Cool • Ray Cooper • Stewart Copeland • Paulinho Da Costa • Kirk Covington • René Creemers • Adam Cruz • Abe Cunningham • Mickey Curry • Andrew Cyrille • Nick D'Virgilio • Paulinho Da Costa • Brann Dailor • Dino Danelli • Zach Danziger • Flo Dauner • Chris "Daddy" Dave • Mike Davila • Alan Dawson • Mikkey Dee • Barrett Deems • Jimmy DeGrasso • Adam Deitch • Jack DeJohnette • Kenwood Dennard • John Densmore • Liberty De Vitto • Wim De Vries • Dave DiCenso • Marko Djordjevic • Warren "Baby" Dodds • John Dolmayan • Peter Donald • Virgil Donati • Famadou Don Moye • Paul Douglas • Brian Downey • Hamid Drake • Martin Drew • The Drumbassadors • Billy Drummond • Aynsley Dunbar • Sly Dunbar • Mario Duplantier • Sheila E. • Phil Ehart • Dave Elitch • Paul Elliott • Sonny Emory • Peter Erskine • Dom Famularo • Pierre Favre • Steve Ferrone • Anton Fig • Vera Figueiredo • Sammy Figueroa • Larry Finn • Eric Fischer • Mick Fleetwood • D.J. Fontana • Hannah Ford • Shannon Forrest • Al Foster • Vernel Fournier • Panama Francis • Brian Frasier-Moore • Josh Freese • Kiko Freitas • Steve Gadd • James Gadson • Richie Gajate-Garcia • David Garibaldi • Matt Garstka • Bob Gatzen • Mel Gaynor • Leonard "Doc" Gibbs • Andy Gillmann • Daniel Glass • Evelyn Glennie • Jim Gordon • Danny Gottlieb • Jimmy DeGrasso • Rick Gratton • Eric Kamau Gravatt • Milford Graves • Benny Greb • Sonny Greer • Rayford Griffin • Dave Grohl • Freddie Gruber • Donny Gruendler • Mark Guiliana • Terreon Gully • Trilok Gurtu • Ralf Gustke • Tomas Haake • Wolfgang Haffner • Omar Hakim • Matt Halpern • Chico Hamilton • Jeff Hamilton • Lionel Hampton • Jake Hanna • Eric Harland • Buddy Harman • Gavin Harrison • Mickey Hart • Billy Hart • Steve Hass • Fritz Hauser • Roger Hawkins • Taylor Hawkins • Louis Hayes • Roy Haynes • Richie Hayward • Albert Tootie Heath • Hernan Hecht • Levon Helm • Don Henley • Joey Heredia • Horacio Hernandez • Raymond Herrera • Claus Hessler • Gerald Heyward • Giovanni Hidalgo • Billy Higgins • Jon Hiseman • Ari Hoenig • Gene Hoglan • Rodney Holmes • Steve Holmes • Steve Houghton • Boris Hrebtukov • Daniel Humair • Gary Husband • Zakir Hussain • Greg Hutchinson • Susie Ibarra • Tommy Igoe • Tris Imboden • Al Jackson • Huub Janssen • Bobby Jarzombek • Akira Jimbo • Jack DeJohnette • Mike Johnston • Daru Jones • Elvin Jones • Harold Jones • Hilary Jones • Papa Jo Jones • Philly Joe Jones • Randy Jones • Rufus "Speedy" Jones • Steve Jordan • Joey Jordison • Jonathan Joseph • Manu Katché • Senri Kawaguchi • Jim Keltner • Will Kennedy • Billy Kilson • George Kollias • Glenn Kotche • Joey Kramer • Bill Kreutzmann • Gene Krupa • Russ Kunkel • Joe La Barbera • Abe Laboriel jr. • Gene Lake • Don Lamond • Thomas Lang • Dave Langguth • Shannon Larkin • Pete LaRoca Sims • Karl Latham • Rick Latham • Trevor Lawrence Jr. • Ricky Lawson • Chris Layton • Tommy Lee • Felix M. Lehrmann • Paul Leim • Stan Levey • Larnell Lewis • Mel Lewis • Victor Lewis • Pete Lockett • Dave Lombardo • Larrie Londin • Hakim Ludin • Andy Lüscher • Ray Luzier • Mike Mangini • Shelly Manne • Brian "Brain" Mantia • Sherrie Maricle • Rick Marotta • Bill Marschall • John Marshall • Billy Martin • Pedrito Martinez • Ken Mary • Harvey Mason • Nick Mason • Pat Mastelotto • Dave Mattacks • Phil Maturano • JoJo Mayer • Marilyn Mazur • Nicko McBrain • Joe McCarthy • George "Spanky" McCurdy • Jason McGerr • Russ McKinnon • Marvin McQuitty • Buddy Miles • Butch Miles • Russ Miller • Marco Minnemann • Mike Mitchell • Mitch Mitchell • Joseph Ziggy Modeliste • Jonathan Moffett • Drori Mondlak • Keith Moon • Eric Moore • Stanton Moore • Steve Moore • Airto Moreira • Joe Morello • Rod Morgenstein • Joe Morris • Paul Motian • Alphonse Mouzon • Jonathan Mover • Don Moye • Moritz Mueller • Idris Muhammad • Larry Mullen Jr. • Narada • Lewis Nash • Sandy Nelson • Andy Newmark • Jost Nickel • Anika Nilles • Gary Novak • Adam Nussbaum • Volkan Öktem • Jamie Oldaker • Nigel Olsson • John Otto • Ian Paice • Carl Palmer • Earl Palmer • Francis Panama • Toss Panos • Chris Parker • Leon Parker • Vinnie Paul • Jim Payne • Sonny Payne • Lee Pearson • Neil Peart • Shawn Pelton • Clarence Penn • Chris Pennie • Armando Peraza • Karl Perazzo • Stephen Perkins • Charli Persip • Ralph Peterson • Pat Petrillo • Simon Phillips • Felix Pollard • Joe Porcaro • Jeff Porcaro • Mike Portnoy • Cozy Powell • Bobby Previte • Thomas Pridgen • Aquiles Priester • Dafnis Prieto • Tito Puente • Bernard "Pretty" Purdie • Alvin Queen • Jeff Queen • Questlove • Johnny Rabb • Tobias Ralph • Stanley Randolph • Rich Redmond • Raul Rekow • Walfredo Reyes • Walfredo Reyes, Jr. • Buddy Rich • Dannie Richmond • Sean Rickman • Alex Riel • Kariem Riggins • Ben Riley • Herlin Riley • Jim Riley • John Riley • Ringo • Chip Ritter • Max Roach • Lil John Roberts • John "J.R." Robinson • Pete LaRoca Sims • Derek Roddy • Mickey Roker • Bobby Rondinelli • Joel Rosenblatt • Tony Royster Jr. • Ilan Rubin • Phil Rudd • Daniel Sadownick • Bobby Sanabria • Antonio Sanchez • Poncho Sanchez • Mongo Santamaria • Robyn Schulkowsky • Mark Schulman • Jon Bermuda Schwartz • Robert "Sput" Searight • Denny Seiwell • Danny Seraphine • Paco Séry • Chad Sexton • Gil Sharone • Ed Shaughnessy • Michael Shrieve • Pete LaRoca Sims • Eric Singer • Zutty Singleton • Chad Smith • Marvin "Smitty" Smith • Nate Smith • Nick Smith • Steve Smith • Ash Soan • Glen Sobel • Ed Soph • Matt Sorum • Richard Spaven • Aaron Spears • David Stanoch • Zak Starkey • John "Jabo" Starks • Ringo Starr • Ronnie Stephenson • Bill Stewart • Nisan Stewart • Clyde Stubblefield • Fredy Studer • Todd Sucherman • James "The Reverend" Sullivan • Grady Tate • Art Taylor • Mel Taylor • Roger Taylor • John Tempesta • Jon Theodore • Aaron Thier • Ed Thigpen • Ian Thomas • Ahmir Questlove Thompson • Chester Thompson • Brian Tichy • Top Secret Drum Corps • Efrain Toro • Pat Torpey • Tico Torres • Dave Tough • Nat Townsley • Ron Tutt • Lars Ulrich • Vadrum Andrea Vadrucci • Christian Vander • Alex Van Halen • Ronnie Vannucci • Nana Vasconcelos • Carlos Vega • Glen Velez • Nicolas Viccaro • Johnny Vidacovich • Jimmy Vincent • Nick D'Virgilio • Wim De Vries • Chad Wackerman • Nasheet Waits • Narada Michael Walden • Bill Ward • Billy Ward • Kenny Washington • Derico Watson • Charlie Watts • Jeff "Tain" Watts • Chick Webb • Dave Weckl • Max Weinberg • Klaus Weiss • Paul Wertico • George Wettling • Alan White • Lenny White • Steve White • Pete Wilhoit • Brad Wilk • Tony Williams • Matt Wilson • Shadow Wilson • Kenny Wollesen • Sam Woodyard • Pete York • Pete Zeldman • Zoro


The fretting hand can add vibrato to a plucked or picked note, either a gentle, narrow vibrato or a more exaggerated, wide vibrato with bigger pitch variations. For fretted basses, vibrato is always an alternation between the pitch of the note and a slightly higher pitch. For fretless basses, the player can use this style of vibrato, or they can alternate between the note and a slightly lower pitch, as is done with the double bass and on other unfretted stringed instruments. While vibrato is mostly done on "stopped" notes—that is, notes that are pressed down on the fingerboard—open strings can also be vibratoed by pressing down on the string behind the nut. As well, the fretting hand can be used to "bend" a plucked or picked note up in pitch, by pushing or pulling the string so that the note sounds at a higher pitch. To create the opposite effect, a "bend down", the string is pushed to a higher pitch before being plucked or picked and then allowed to fall to the lower, regular pitch after it is sounded. Though rare, some bassists may use a tremolo bar-equipped bass to produce the same effect.
In the two-handed tapping styles, bassists use both hands to play notes on the fretboard by rapidly pressing and holding the string to the fret. Instead of plucking or picking the string to create a sound, in this technique, the action of striking the string against the fret or the fretboard creates the sound. Since two hands can be used to play on the fretboard, this makes it possible to play interweaving contrapuntal lines, to simultaneously play a bass line and a simple chord, or play chords and arpeggios. Bassist John Entwistle of The Who tapped percussively on the strings, causing them to strike the fretboard with a twangy sound to create drum-style fills.[citation needed] Players noted for this technique include Cliff Burton, Billy Sheehan, Stuart Hamm, John Myung, Victor Wooten, Les Claypool, Mark King, and Michael Manring. The Chapman Stick and Warr Guitars are string instruments specifically designed to play using two-handed tapping.
Kawai’s exceptional line of digital pianos is the result of a never-ending effort to create the world’s most authentic and innovative digital pianos. Relying on our rich experience in building fine acoustic pianos, Kawai builds digital pianos that offer the finest touch and tone available. Wooden-key actions, Harmonic Imaging sound technology, USB digital audio and the unique Soundboard Speaker System are just a few of the innovations found in our digital pianos and keyboards.
The fretting hand can also be used to sound notes, either by plucking an open string with the fretting hand, or, in the case of a string that has already been plucked or picked, by "hammering on" a higher pitch or "pulling off" a finger to pluck a lower fretted or open stringed note. Jazz bassists use a subtle form of fretting hand pizzicato by plucking a very brief open string grace note with the fretting hand right before playing the string with the plucking hand. When a string is rapidly hammered on, the note can be prolonged into a trill.
Various electronic bass effects such as preamplifiers, "stomp box"-style pedals and signal processors and the configuration of the amplifier and speaker can be used to alter the basic sound of the instrument. In the 1990s and early 2000s (decade), signal processors such as equalizers, overdrive devices (sometimes referred to as "fuzz bass"[54]), and compressors or limiters became increasingly popular. Modulation effects like chorus, flanging, phase shifting, and time effects such as delay and looping are less commonly used with bass than with electric guitar, but they are used in some styles of music.
In the mid-1970s, Alembic and other boutique bass manufacturers, such as Tobias, produced four-string and five-string basses with a low "B" string. In 1975, bassist Anthony Jackson commissioned luthier Carl Thompson to build a six-string bass tuned (low to high) B0, E1, A1, D2, G2, C3. In comparison with a standard four-string bass, Jackson's six-string adds a low B string and a high C string. These 5 and 6-string "extended-range basses" would become popular with session bassists as they reduced the need for re-tuning to alternate detuned configurations like "drop D", and also allowed the bassist to play more notes from the same position on the fretboard with fewer shifts up and down the fingerboard, a crucial benefit for a session player sightreading basslines at a recording session.
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Traditional digital pianos vaguely resemble an electronic organ or a spinet harpsichord but usually lacking a fully enclosed lower section, while some models are based on the casework of traditional upright pianos with a fully enclosed bottom part and pedals that look like actual piano pedals. An opposite and recent trend is to produce an instrument which has a unique and distinctive appearance, unobtainable with a conventional instrument. Yamaha , Kawai and Casio makes a model which is designed to stand against a wall and is far shallower from keyboard to back than any possible upright design, as well as shorter height.
Optical pickups are another type of non-magnetic pickup. They use an infrared LED to optically track the movement of the string, similar to the mechanism of modern computer mice, which allows them to reproduce low-frequency tones at high volumes without the "hum" or excessive resonance associated with conventional magnetic pickups. Since optical pickups do not pick up high frequencies or percussive sounds well, they are commonly paired with piezoelectric pickups to fill in the missing frequencies. LightWave Systems builds basses with optical pickups.
Although there are far fewer university programs that offer electric bass instruction in jazz and popular music, some universities offer bachelor's degrees (B.Mus.) and Master of Music (M.Mus.) degrees in jazz performance or "commercial music", where electric bass can be the main instrument. In the US, the Manhattan School of Music has a jazz program leading to B.Mus. and M.Mus degrees that accepts students who play bass (double bass and electric bass), guitar, piano, drums, and melody instruments (e.g., saxophone, trumpet, etc.).

Double-drumming was developed to enable one person to play the bass and snare with sticks, while the cymbals could be played by tapping the foot on a "low-boy". With this approach, the bass drum was usually played on beats one and three (in 4/4 time). While the music was first designed to accompany marching soldiers, this simple and straightforward drumming approach eventually led to the birth of ragtime music when the simplistic marching beats became more syncopated. This resulted in a greater 'swing' and dance feel. The drum set was initially referred to as a "trap set", and from the late 1800s to the 1930s, drummers were referred to as "trap drummers". By the 1870s, drummers were using an "overhang pedal". Most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05.[8] Liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist (thus the term "kick drum"). The bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would later revolve.


In some styles or settings, such as country music clubs or churches, small venues, or when a live recording is being made, the drummer may use a transparent perspex or plexiglas drum screen (also known as a drum shield) to dampen the onstage volume of the drums. A screen that completely surrounds the drum kit is known as a drum booth. In live sound applications, drum shields are used so that the audio engineer can have more control over the volume of drums that the audience hears through the PA system mix or to reduce the overall volume of the drums, as a way to reduce the overall volume of the band in the venue. In some recording studios, foam and fabric baffles are used in addition to or in place of clear panels. The drawback with foam/cloth baffle panels is that the drummer cannot see other performers, the record producer or the audio engineer well.
In the 1980s, bass designers continued to explore new approaches. Ned Steinberger introduced a headless bass in 1979 and continued his innovations in the 1980s, using graphite and other new materials and (in 1984) introducing the TransTrem tremolo bar. In 1982, Hans-Peter Wilfer founded Warwick, to make a European bass, as the market at the time was dominated by Asian and American basses. Their first bass was the Streamer Bass, which is similar to the Spector NS. In 1987, the Guild Guitar Corporation launched the fretless Ashbory bass, which used silicone rubber strings and a piezoelectric pickup to achieve an "upright bass" sound with a short 18-inch (457 mm) scale length. In the late 1980s, MTV's "Unplugged" show, which featured bands performing with acoustic instruments, helped to popularize hollow-bodied acoustic bass guitars amplified with piezoelectric pickups built into the bridge of the instrument.
Specific bass brands/models became identified with particular styles of music, such as the Rickenbacker 4001 series, which became identified with progressive rock bassists like Chris Squire of Yes, and Geddy Lee of Rush, while the StingRay was used by funk/disco players such Louis Johnson of the funk band The Brothers Johnson and Bernard Edwards of Chic. The 4001 stereo bass was introduced in the late 1960s; it can be heard on the Beatles' "I Am The Walrus." [22]
Detuners, such as the Hipshot, are mechanical devices the player operates with the thumb on the fretting hand to quickly retune one or more strings to a pre-set lower pitch. Hipshots typically drop the E-string down to D on a four-string bass.[34] Rarely, some bassists (e.g., Michael Manring) add detuners to more than one string, or even more than one detuner to each string, so they can retune during a performance and access a wider range of chime-like harmonics.

If you’re trying to decide whether to get a digital piano or a keyboard, you should consider what you’re hoping to accomplish. As has been said, digital pianos are a great option for anyone who is just starting to learn to play the piano or for those who play a traditional piano but would like another option that is more convenient. If, on the other hand, you’re looking to play the keyboard and take full advantage of all of the various options that they have, then a digital piano would likely not be as useful for you.
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Trigger pads and drums, on the other hand, when deployed in a conventional set-up, are most commonly used to produce sounds not possible with an acoustic kit, or at least not with what is available. Any sound that can be sampled/recorded can be played when the pad is struck, by assigning the recorded sounds to specific triggers . Recordings or samples of barking dogs, sirens, breaking glass and stereo recordings of aircraft taking off and landing have all been used. Along with the more obvious electronically generated sounds there are synthesized human voices or song parts or even movie audio or digital video/pictures that (depending on device used) can also be played/triggered by electronic drums.
Just like a traditional piano, a digital piano features a keyboard. A digital piano's keyboard is weighted to simulate the action of a traditional piano and is velocity sensitive so that the volume of the sounds depends on how hard the keys are pressed.[6] Many instruments now have a complex action incorporating actual hammers in order to better simulate the touch of a grand piano.[7]
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